Sunny's Mother begins her day by switching on the geyser. She irons Sunny's school uniform before waking him up. She then rushes to the kitchen to prepare a glass of orange of orange juice for him in the blender.
Sunny, have you finished taking bath? Come and have your breakfast", calls out mother while preparing breakfast on the gas stove for Sunny
While going to school sunny forgets to switch off lights and fans. When mother switches them off she thanks that life in cities may be more comfortable, but its dependence on more and more gadgets all of which consume energy has led to a wide gap between the demand and supply. With the advent of science and technology the life styles are changing very fast
Conventional Sources of energy are those which have been in common use for a long time.Firewood and fossil fuels are two main conventional energy sources.
It is widely used for cooking and heating.In our country more than fifty per cent of the energy used by villagers comes from fire wood.
Remains of plants and animals which were buried under the earth for millions of years got converted by the heat and pressure into fossil fuels. Fossil fuel such as coal, petroleum and natural gas are the main sources of conventional energy. The reserves of these minerals are limited. The rate at which the growing world population is consuming them is far greater than the rate of their formation. So, these are likely to be exhausted soon.
This is the most abundantly found fossil fuel. It is used as a domestic fuel, in industries such as iron and steel, steam engines and to generate electricity. Electricity from coal is called thermal power. The coal which we are using today was formed millions of years ago when giant ferns and swamps got buried under the layers of earth. Coal is therefore referred to as Buried Sunshine. The leading coal producers of the world are China, USA, Germany, Russia, South Africa and france. The coal producing areas in india are Raniganj, Jharia, Dhanbad and Bokaro in Jharkhand.
The petrol that keeps your car running as well as the oil that keeps your cycle from squaking, both began as a thick black liquid called Petroleum. It is found between the layers of rocks and drilled from oil fields located in off-shore and coastal areas. This is then sent to refineries which process the crude oil and produce a variety of products like diesel , petrol, kerosene, wax, plastics and lubricants. Petroleum and its derivatives are called Black Gold as they are very valuable. The chief petroleum producing countries are iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Qatar. The other major producers are USA, Russia, Venezuela and Algeria. The leading producers in india are Digboi in Assam, Bombay High in Mumbai and the deltas of Krishna and Godavari rivers.
Natural Gas is found with petroleum deposits and released when crude oil is brought to the surface. It can be used as a domestic and industrial fuel. Russia, Norway, UK and the Netherlands are the major producers of natural gas. In India Jaisalmer, Krishna Godavari delta, Tripura and some areas off shore in Mumbai have natural gas resources. Very few Countries in the world have sufficient natural gas reserves of their own. The sharp increase in our consumption of thefossil fuels has led to their depletion at an alarming rate. The toxic pollutants released from burning these fules are also acause for concern. Unchecked burning of fossil fuel is like an unchecked dripping tap which will eventually run dry. This has led to the tapping os various non-conventional sources of energy that are cleaner alternatives to fossil fuels.
Rain Water or river water stored in dams is amde to fall from heights. The falling water flows through the pipes inside the dam over turbine blades placed at the bottom of the dam. The moving blades then turn the generator to produce electricity. This is called Hydro-Electricity. The discharged after the generation of electricity is used for irrigation . One fourth of the world's electricty is produced by hydel power. The leading producers of hydel power in the world are Paraguay, Morway, Brazil and China. Some important Hydel power stations in India are Bhakra Nangal, Gandhi Sagar, Nagarjunsagar and Damodar valley projects.
The increasing use of fossil fuels is leading to its shortage. It is estimated that if the present rate of consumption continues, the reserves of these fuel will get exhausted. Moreover, their use also causes environmental pollution. Therefore, there is need for using non-conventional sources such as Solar Energy, Wind Energy, Tidal Energy which are renewable.
Non-Conventional Sources of Energy
The increasing use of fossil fuels is leading to its shortage. It is estimated that if the present rate of consumption continues, the reserves of these fuel will get exhausted. Moreover, their use also causes environmental pollution. Therefore, there is need for using non-conventional sources such as Solar Energy, Wind Energy, Tidal Energy which are renewable resources.
Sun's heat and light can be felt by us every day. Solar energy trapped from the sun can be used in Solar cells to produce electricity. Many of these cells are joined into solar panels to generate power for heating and lighting purpose. The technology of utilizing solar energy benefits a lot of tropical countries blessed with abundant sun shine. Solar energy is also used in solar heaters, solar cookers, solar dryers besides being used for community lighting and traffic signals.
Wind is an inexhaustible source of energy. Wind mills have been used for grinding grain and lifting water since times immemorial. In modern time wind mills, the high speed winds rotate the wind mill which is connected to a generator to produce electricity. Wind farms having clusters of such wind mills are located in coastal regions and in mountain passes where strong and steady winds blow. Wind farms are found in Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, UK, USA and Spain are noted for their wind energy production.
Nuclear power is produced by controlled , non-explosive nuclear reactions. Commercial and utility plants currently use nuclear fission reactions to heat water to produce steam, which is then used to generate electricity.
Uses of Nuclear Power
Nuclear power is the 21st century electricity generator. It is widely exposed in the following fields.
(a) Nuclear Fusion
Nuclear fusion reactions are safer and generate less radioactive waste than the nuclear fission. These reactions are though technically quite difficult and have yet to be created on a large scale that could be used in a functional power plant. The nuclear fusion has been under i theoretical and experimental investigation since the 20th century.
The nuclear fission and the nuclear fusion appear promising for space applications which generates higher mission velocities with less reaction mass. This is due to the much higher energy density of nuclear reactions which are about 10,000,000 times more energetic than the chemical reactions which power the current generation of rockets.
Radioactive decay has been used on a relatively small scale, mostly to power space missions and experiments.
Geothermal power means earth heating (geo,means earth, and thermos, means heat). It is power extracted from heat stored in the earthwhich originates from the original formation of the planet, from decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. It has been used for bathing and space heating since Paleolithic times and ancient Roman times respectively. But is now better known for generating electricity. Worldwide, about 10,715 megawatts (MW) of geothermal power is online in 24 countries. An additional energy for direct geothermal heating capacity is installed for district heating, space heating, spas, industrial processes, desalination and agricultural applications.
Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, but has historically been limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Recent technological advances have dramatically expanded its range, especially for applications such as home heating, opening a potential for widespread exploitation. Geothermal wells release greenhouse gases trapped deep within the earth, but these emissions are much lower than those of fossil fuels.
Tidal energy is the hydro power that converts the energy of tides into electricity or other useful forms of power. When there is a high tide,the energy generated is larger in quantity. On the contrary when there is a low tide, the energy generated is lower
Although it is not yet widely used, it has the potential for future electricity generation. Among sources of renewable energy, tidal power has comparatively higher cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal ranges. Many recent technological developments and improvements, both in design and turbine technology.
The first large-scale tidal power plant ,the Rance Tidal Power Station started its operation in the year of 1966.
The Rance Tidal Power Station is located on the estuary of the Rance River, in Brittany, France.
Bio gas is the gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. It originates from bio genic material and is a type of bio fuel.These bio fuel can be the LPG, CNG, PNG etc.
Biogas is also produced by anaerobic digestion or fermentation of biodegradable materials such as biomass, manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste, plant material and energy crops. This type of biogas comprises primarily methane and carbon dioxide.
The other usage of bio gas is done through wood gas which is created by converting wood or other biomass into gaseous state. It is comprised mainly of nitrogen, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide, with trace amounts of methane.
The energy released is the bio gas which is used as a fuel. Bio gas can be used as a low-cost fuel in any country for any heating purpose, such as cooking. It can also be used in modern waste management facilities where it can be used to run any type of heat engine, to generate either mechanical or electrical